Israel Explored – From Galilee to the Dead Sea

River Jordan - Baptism Site
River Jordan – Baptism Site

The latest episode of Israel Explored talks about our transfer day from Northern Galilee to Jerusalem took us along the Jordan river towards the Dead Sea. Highlights of the day were visits to Jesus’ baptism site, iconic mountain palace Masada, the discovery site of the Qumran Scriptures and finally a bath in the Dead Sea. For the images and a bit of history continue after the jump.

According to Christian tradition, the baptism of Jesus (Matthew 3:13-17) took place on the river Jordan, north of the Dead Sea and east of Jericho. For centuries, al-Maghtas was the principal baptism site for pilgrims, situated on the Jordanian site of the river.

Since the Six-Day War, Israel has occupied the west margin of the Jordan river, including the area immediately opposite the Jordanian site, known as Qasr al-Yahud. While the majority of the guest houses and monasteries are on the Jordanian site, also Qasr al-Yahud provides access to the river for pilgrims and tourists.

While many of our group entered the muddy water of the baptism site, I fought with the Leica SL2-S that quit on me with a system error exactly at this location. Since the problem is, according Leica service, a hardware failure of the shutter, I had to turn to my iPhone and the backup vintage Leica M240 for the rest of our Israel trip. All images in this post were captured with the iPhone 12 Max Pro.

Dead Sea
Dead Sea with Jordania on the far shore

Soon after leaving the baptism site, we reached the Dead Sea, a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and the West Bank to the west. The lake’s surface is 430.5 metres (1,412 ft) below sea level, making its shores the lowest place on Earth. We continued along the western shore until we reached famous Masada just beyond the south end of the Dead Sea.

Masada Aerial Tram
Masada Aerial Tram

On a summit plateau at the edge of the Judean Desert, high above the Dead Sea, infamous King Herod had himself a palace fortress built. This royal retreat was completed around 15 B.C.

Some 70 years later, during the Jewish War, many people used Masada as a refuge rock. Coming and going was possible for some years until Legio X Fretensis under Flavius Silva appeared in front of Masada in 73 or 74 AD, enclosed the fortress with a rampart and raised a siege ramp. According to the account of Flavius Josephus, the Romans finally succeeded in tearing a breach in the outer wall. In a hopeless situation, the commander of Masada, Eleazar ben Jaʾir, had convinced all the rebels to commit suicide with their women and children.

The fortress rises about 450 m above the western shore of the Dead Sea and can easily be reached with an aerial tram.

Masada Palace
Masada Palace

The ruins of the fortress and the palace area are spectacular, as are the views down to the Dead Sea. Some rooms still show parts of the original wall decorations.

Masada Ritual Bath
Masada Ritual Bath with remnants of original wall paintings
Masada Royal Palace Model
Masada Royal Palace Model

Herod offered his guests a special attraction with water luxury in the form of a thermal bath complex and a swimming pool.

Masada Palace Royal Quarters
Masada Palace Royal Quarters with the Dead Sea in the background
Masade Roman Siege Ramp
Masade Roman Siege Ramp

In the above panoramic view, you can see the still existing gigantic siege ramp rising up from the valley to the left. Visible at the right of the panorama photo (the iPhone is awesome at going panos) you can see the foundation of the camp of the Roman soldiers.

Since the 1920s, Masada gained symbolic significance for the Jewish inhabitants of Palestine: in Yitzhak Lamdan’s verse epic Masada (1927), the desert fortress and the tragic end of the Jewish fugitives stands metaphorically for the Zionist project.

In 1966, Table Mountain and the surrounding area with the Roman siege complex were declared an Israeli national park. In 2001, UNESCO included Masada in the World Heritage List.


Next stop, back in the Westbank, was Qumran, an archeological site near the northwest Shore of the Dead Sea. Already in the Iron Age there was a settlement, which is proved by numerous ceramic findings. After its end, the marl plateau was inhabited again from the Hellenistic period until the Jewish War. A distinction is made between a main building with a tower and two economic areas to the west and south of it. There is also a large cemetery with over 1000 burials east of the settlement.

Qumran Caves
Qumran Caves

The claim to fame for Qumran are the Dead Sea Scrolls, or Qumran manuscripts, are a group of ancient Jewish texts found inside eleven caves in the cliffs behind the ancient settlement. You can see on the caves in the photo above. Ab Bedouin boy discovered the first scroll in a cave in 1947, more were found during the archaeological investigation of the caves. About 15 scrolls are still recognizable as such. The rest, an estimated 900 to 1000 scrolls, have disintegrated into more than 15,000 fragments. Based on the letter forms, the manuscripts are dated to the period from the 3rd century BC to the 1st century AD. Most of the texts are written in Hebrew, almost all have a religious content.

Dead Sea Bathing Site
Dead Sea Bathing Site

Last stop, and a fun one, was on a beach of the Dead Sea. The water has a salinity of 34 %, about three times as much as the ocean, allowing people to fully float in the water. The Significant Other and I had already the opportunity to enjoy the floating experience on the opposite banks of the Dead Sea during our 2019 trip to Jordan.

Floating in the Dead Sea
Floating in the Dead Sea

After finishing the dip into to hot, salty water, we continued our tour to Jerusalem, driving up from minus 420m to the 900m altitude of the Holy City on the mountains behind the Dead Sea.

After the initial shock of losing the Leica to a failure of the shutter system (and the bad experience with their customer service) I settled in shooting only with the iPhone.

Stay tuned for more editions of Israel Explored!

Have a great Wednesday!


Related Posts:

Israel Explored – Sea of Galilee

Israel Explored – Northern Galilee

My Photography Equipment Checklist

Israel Explored – Mahane Yehuda Market

21 thoughts on “Israel Explored – From Galilee to the Dead Sea

Add yours

  1. This was so interesting! Loads of good information – Love your Blog! I wrote a small post on Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls would appreciate if you checked it out!

  2. Love these places you’ve shared with us. We, too, visited Masada – a very moving experience. And I ventured into the waters of the Dead Sea, but could hardly float in those cold, cold waters that day. Would love to try again!

    1. Ahhh…how great you had the chance to see these magnificent places. if you want to come back for proper floating, come back fast, as the Dead Sea level is steadily declining. The world is just becoming too hot and dry….

      1. I had not heard that. How sad. But I won’t be back in that part of the world, unfortunately. We’re trying to see places we haven’t been before we’re just too old to travel! Your trips mean a lot to us. Thanks for being extra eyes for us.

  3. There is a lot of new information. Thanks for all the historical references. There is so much information on this region that I still need to update myself upon.

  4. Great photos with the iPhone 12, Marcus! It does a great job. I would love to see the places you guys have been, very important to Christians. I too wold be angry with the company and that expensive camera. I’ve looked at them at my local camera store, very expensive!

    1. Thanks for your kind words, John, they are so much appreciated! I have some more of Christian places to blog about. It was so special to see them…no words about the Leica folks…I will harass them when back in Germany, no worries….

      1. I hope the company treats you very well, Marcus, that’s a seriously expensive camera!

  5. Dead sea looks interesting. Have heard a lot about it. Hoping to visit the place someday! Thank you for the post !

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: